All the activities necessary to create a mining environment (the full infrastructure).
At a strategic level: creating the mine, beneficiation plant, environment, supporting facilities & communities, plus financing.
At a tactical level: ensuring mid-term continuity and viability of the mining operation. Typically funded by capital expenditure; e.g., sinking a new shaft, planning and building of extensions to an existing mine.
At an operational level: creation of further access to the ore body with all the associated supporting engineering infrastructure. Funded by operational fund (opex)